Definition, Causes and Control of Floods

Definition of Flood

Indonesia is a country that has quite high rainfall. During the rainy season, almost all regions in Indonesia receive high intensity rain. The rainy season usually lasts for about 4 months. This situation is actually beneficial because droughts rarely occur in Indonesia. Water is very important in life, both as a consumption material and for agricultural irrigation.

According to Chow (1956), floods are relatively high flows that exceed the capacity of natural channels for water flow. A similar opinion was also expressed by Rostvedt et al. (1968), that floods are high river flows that exceed natural or artificial river banks. Ward (1978) also states that a flood is an overflow of water that fills land that is not usually submerged.

Based on BNPB data, floods were the most common natural disaster in Indonesia in 2020, reaching 36.5% of the total disasters. Apart from that, there were also tornadoes (29.80%), landslides (19.60%), and forest and land fires (11%). The four provinces with the highest number of disaster incidents were West Java (623 incidents), Central Java (522 incidents), East Java (408 incidents), and Aceh (264 incidents).






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